Diplomacy

The war
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                                        World War I

 

This war started as a conflict between the Austro-Hungarian Empire and Serb because of the murder of Francisco Fernando, an inheriting archduke for the throne of The Austro-Hungarian Empire, and his wife Sofia Chotek committed on June 28th. 1914.

The murder was committed in Serb, and the murderer was Gavrilo Princip, a young Serbian nationalistic student. The Austro-Hungarian government wanted to investigate, but the sovereignty of Serb was in danger so this last country refused to allow the investigations. This caused the Austro-Hungarian Empire to declare the war to Serb.

Germany, an Austria-Hungary ally, declared the war to Serb's recent allies: Russia and France. In order to get to France, Germany asked Belgium to give German troops free pass through Belgian territory. But Belgium wanted to be neutral, so rejected Germany's offer and asked for English help. England allied with Serb and proclaimed war with Austria-Hungary. Later, in 1915, Italy announced he would fight against Austria-Hungary. In 1902, Japan joined with England to fight Germany. Another Serbia's ally was the United States. In this conflict there were other countries that intervened; totally there were 32. From them, the most important were:

 

SERB'S ALLIES:

Russia, France, England, Japan, E.U.A., Italy, Rumania, Greece and Portugal

 

AUTRIA-HUNGARY'S ALLIES: Germany, Bulgaria, and Ottoman Empire.

 

In addition to the murder of Francisco Fernando, there are other reasons that waged the

War, for example:

 

* The conflicts caused because some countries had colonies and others did not.

* The fact that other countries that participated in the war had fomented nationalism in their people (enlarging the military service, establishing new national celebrations, exaggerating the qualities of the nation in the press, talking bad about other countries, etc...)

* Serb and Russia wanted the Balkan territory dominated by the Ottoman Empire and Austria - Hungary.

* Germany, France and England wanted the Strait of Dardanelles, a territory that belonged to the Ottoman Empire).

* Economic and political rivalry between countries. For example: Germany had a great growth because it sold more products than other countries.

* The increase of armament in the countries.

* The necessity to look for new markets in the outside because the industrial revolution had increased the amount of manufactured products.

* French, German and English interests to dominate the African territory.

Some of the actions that the countries took for the war were:

* Having permanent armies.

* England modernized its fleet.

* Spending money in armament.

*Investing in new armament development.

 

 

In this war, the different countries used modern armaments, for example:

 

* Machine guns

* Suffocating gases (developing the chemical and biological war)

* Motorized transportations

* Military aviation (combats with pistols and carbines and later, bombing)

* Magazine rifles

* Tanks

* Airships

* Flame throwers

* Cruises, battleships, submarines, etc...

 

 

The war ended in October, 1918 when Germany accepted the peace negotiations; but it was not until 1919 when Germany signed the treaty of Versailles, which obligated it to drastically reduce its army and armament, together with the payment of indemnifications.

 

 

Some of the consequences from this war are:

 

* The Ottoman Empire territory's reduction.

* The Austro-Hungarian Empire's disappearance and the creation of four new states: Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Austria and Yugoslavia

* The stop of the European powers' supremacy and the increase of power for Japan and U.S.A.

* The destruction of almost all the European territory (including crops, transport, buildings and mass media), and a severe economic crisis caused by the reduction of gold reserves and investments, together with the reduction of industrial and agricultural production.

* Epidemics of diseases in which the Red Cross helped.

* The creation of new society rolls for women because they started to do things that they did not use to, like: driving trucks, assembling arms, packing dangerous ammunition, bullets, pumps and projectiles.

 

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                                World War II

 

 

Image obtained from:

"La Segunda Guerra Mundial" <http://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Segunda_Guerra_Mundial> (21/02/06) 

 

This armed conflict has had an important impact in history because it involved the entire world during 1939 to 1945. It cost 2 percent of the worldwide population (approximately sixty two millions of people died as result of this war).

 

At the very beginning the war was fought by Germany against the Allies,  formed by the United Kingdom, France and Poland. Later, Italy and Japan joined the Germans and they formed the group named Axis Powers. Through this war other countries as USA, China and Poland joined the Allies and Hungary, Romania and Bulgaria the Axis Powers.

 

Causes of World War II

In major aspects, the war was a consequence of the World War I' s arguments without solution in a period of twenty years.

After World War I, Germans frustrated because of the defeat and the Treat of Versalles' terms. Also, in this time German society and politics were unstable and in conflict resulting in Adolf Hitler's rise in power, leader of the Nazi party of an extreme nationalism ideology and anti-Semite. In 1933, Hitler became the Third Rich and motivated the German Secret, a deal about Rhineland's invasion breaking Versalles Treaty. This secret was also supported by Italy with Benito Mussolini as leader.

Also, Germany started dominating regions of Europe as Austria, Czechoslovakia and finally Poland. So France, Soviet Union and United Kingdom were dissatisfied because of Germany's attitude.

 

Principal leaders of Axis Powers

Germany: Adolf Hitler.

Italy: Benito Mussolini.

Japan: Takeo Kurita.

 

Image obtained from:

"La Segunda Guerra Mundial" <http://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Segunda_Guerra_Mundial> (21/02/06) 

 

Some of the principal leaders of Allies

France: Jean-Maarie de Lattre.

United Kingdom: Wintson Churchill.

USSR: Joseph Stalin.

USA: Franklin D. Roosevelt.

 

Image obtained from:

"La Segunda Guerra Mundial" <http://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Segunda_Guerra_Mundial> (21/02/06) 

 

 Consequences of World War II

After the war, the countries perceived the atrocities against the civilian population. Between 11 million and 24 million civilian were killed in acts of genocide and mass murder by Germany. In addition, Japan killed around 6 million civilians in areas they occupied and the Soviets approximately 4 million civilians. A lot of bombings form British killed thousands of German civilians. And Americans with the atomic bomb caused hundreds of thousands of deaths. The world stage was in crisis. Many Europeans did not have a place to live, the economy presented a collapse and 70% of the European industrial infrastructure was destroyed. The victors of East demanded payment of war reparations. One example of this is the Paris Peace Treaty, in which Hungry, Finland and Romania had to pay $300,000,000 each of them. And Italy had to pay $3600,000,000 to Greece, Yugoslavia and the Soviet Union. The Western victors did not appeal money from the defeated nations; they established a plan named Marshall Plan. This plan was about of the capitalism's reconstruction. So they could avoid the economic and social instability in the countries.

 

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Iraq War

 

It is a war that is happening right now among Iraq and some countries like U.S.A, Spain, England and Brazil. 

Its antecedents come from the Gulf war, when Iraq was forced by the United Nations to destroy all its weapons of mass destruction and Saddam Hussein, the president of that time, refused to collaborate with this order.

The reaction that American and English armies had was to bombard Iraq.

 

Years later, in 2001, U.S. president George W. Bush invaded Afghanistan and then spontaneously decided to invade Iraq, accusing this country for having weapons of mass destruction and for being linked with Al-Qaeda.

Some people say that is not true that Iraq had weapons of mass destruction in that time and that U.S. invented it in order to have a reason to invade this country. This was supported because Hans Blix (one of the UN inspectors that looked in Iraq for weapons of mass destruction) and other investigators in charge to find this kind of weapons did not find anything. It was also supported by sources of the UN Security Council which declared that if U.S. had not attacked, the problem could have been solved just by clarifying that such weapons did not exist.

 

The only prove U.S. had was that Iraq had some missiles that surpassed nearly the maximum range allowed by the resolutions of the UN after the Gulf War, but the Iraqi government started to deactivate such missiles in order not to have problems with other countries.

 

Although the UN does not allow a country to start an attack to another country without being attacked before, Bush was allied with the president of Spain, José María Aznar, with the prime minister of the United Kingdom, Tony Blair, and with the prime minister of Portugal, Durão Barroso. This alliance and the decision to start a war with Iraq was rejected by many people around the world, but U.S. and the allied countries did not care about it and bombed Iraq, destroying this country.

 

By now, U.S. has accepted that the proofs they had to accuse Iraq from having weapons of mass destruction were not enough to start the attack.

Also there has not been evidence about a link between the Iraqi government and Al-Qaeda; and recently the United States argued that the main reason to invade Iraq was because they wanted to release the Iraqis from the dictatorship that they lived during the government of Saddam Hussein.

 

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